Responsabilitats i terminis: atenció!

16 desembre 2010 por Elisabet Planas

EL TOT EGARA

Avui que gairebé farà dues setmanes de la desfeta als aeroports espanyols degut a la vaga encoberta dels controladors aeris, quan la paraula responsabilitat era en boca de tots els centenars de milers d’afectats que volien volar pel pont de la Puríssima, per reclamar-la (la responsabilitat) tant d’aquest col·lectiu, com d’AENA i el Govern; avui ens volem fer ressò d’una sentència que ens parla del termini per reclamar la responsabilitat extracontractual.

La responsabilitat extracontractual és aquella que es pot reclamar d’algú, un tercer, que ens genera un dany i/o un perjudici amb la seva actuació i que no es troba vinculat amb nosaltres per cap contracte. Per exemple, si a l’edifici del costat de casa seva es realitzen obres i es produeix un desperfecte ocasionat per aquestes, la reclamació d’aquests danys que hagin patit la realitzaran per la via de la responsabilitat extracontractual. Aquesta es troba prevista a l’article 1902 del Codi Civil espanyol i, segons aquest mateix Codi (article 1968.1) el termini per reclamar-la d’aquest tercer és d’un any.

Però com saben, a Catalunya es va aprovar el Codi Civil català que desenvolupa el Dret civil de Catalunya. I concretament, el seu article 121-21. d) estableix el següent: “prescriuen al cap de tres anys les pretensions de responsabilitat extracontractual”. Per tant, en virtut d’aquest article, les reclamacions de responsabilitat extracontractual a Catalunya s’entén que es poden realitzar durant el termini de tres anys, i no d’un com diu el Codi Civil espanyol.

Doncs resulta que no, que tots estem equivocats i que altra vegada a Catalunya anem amb els papers mullats. La Sentència de l’Audiència Provincial de Barcelona de 10 de març de 2010, que segueix la mateixa línia que sostenia la mateixa Audiència a la Sentència de 13 de desembre de 2007, considera que el període per exigir la responsabilitat extracontractual no pot ser de tres anys, sinó que ha de ser d’un any. I saben per quin motiu? La Sala de l’Audiència diu que al no existir una norma de dret català que reguli la responsabilitat extracontractual i ser d’aplicació el que al respecte disposa el Codi Civil català, fins que no es reguli aquesta matèria per part del legislador català, s’hauran d’aplicar els terminis que estableix el Codi Civil espanyol i no els del català, que estan pensats per regular el dret propi.

Per tant, amb aquesta fonamentació, l’Audiència Provincial entén que la reclamació exercitada dins els tres anys següents a la producció del dany pel qual es reclama (perquè, atenció, així ho estableix la Llei a l’article 121-21.d del Codi Civil català!), està fora de temps.

Sembla mentida, oi? Però entre tant els Tribunal superiors no es pronunciïn al respecte, per cautela caldrà respectar el que ha dictat l’Audiència Provincial de Barcelona i exercir les accions de reclamació de responsabilitat extracontractual en el termini d’un any, ja que en cas contrari, podem veure frustrades les nostres pretensions si s’imposa aquest criteri de l’Audiència, que per ara no és unitari.

És per això que, si consideren que es troben en un cas en què poden reclamar responsabilitat per uns danys i perjudicis que els ha causat un tercer amb qui no es troben vinculats per un contracte, no dubtin en assessorar-se abans no hagi transcorregut aquest famós any per reclamar (afanyin-se).

Certament, és trist que el ciutadà no pugui confiar en el que fixa una Llei perquè els qui l’han d’aplicar (els Tribunals) la compliquen i fan que el que és comprensible deixi de ser-ho. Però val més ser cautelosos i assegurar els nostres drets dins els terminis que aquests Tribunals aplicaran. I com que “las cosas de palacio van despacio”, així ho haurem de fer fins que no tinguem una sentència que resolgui quin criteri s’ha d’aplicar.



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